Top 13 Kasbahs in Morocco: The Ultimate Guide

Morocco has plenty of things to do for all styles of travelers. While some of the main tourist attractions for fans of swish city breaks are the glammed-up riad hotels, shopping opportunities, and hammam (traditional bathhouse) soak and scrub experiences in Marrakesh and Fes, but for adventure seekers, the best places to visit are the Kasbahs in morocco.

No trip to Morocco would be complete without a stay in the kasbah — a traditional Moroccan accommodation. Effortlessly charming kasbahs are undoubtedly one of the reasons to visit this diverse and exciting North African country.

Apart from some of the best places to visit in Morocco, the country also transcends you to a culture and lifestyle that can rarely be experienced anywhere today.

To help you get inspired, please read on to discover the best Kasbahs in Morocco.

Best Kasbahs in Morocco

What is a Kasbah?

Originally, kasbah referred to a fortress where the local leader lived and was built with high, strong walls so it could be easily defended.

Today, the word is often used to describe the medina or old city, where stone houses, schools, shops, palaces, and mosques still stand. Many are hundreds of years old, and the architecture is a charming, rich, and sometimes chaotic mix of ancient structures with modifications and additions over centuries.

The rest of the city has often grown out of the kasbah in urban areas. The streets are narrow, winding for what seems like miles through twists and turns, shaded by the buildings on either side that lean together as if sharing secrets.

In more rural areas, the kasbah comprises the town, with steep, squared-off walls rising dramatically from the hillsides.

Reasons You Should Visit Kasbahs On Your Morocco Trip?

Kasbahs have been around for centuries, and there is a reason why they continue to fascinate us. They are steeped in history and often reflect the power and wealth of the rulers who lived there.

So, if you’re looking for an exciting travel destination that will give you a glimpse into another era, then a Kasbah tour in Morocco should be at the top of your bucket list!

Here are a few reasons why you should consider visiting the Kasbahs of Morocco:

1. Rich History

One of the best things about visiting a Kasbah is learning about its rich history. These Kasbahs were often built in strategic locations and played an essential role in the defense of a region.

Many courts also have fascinating stories, such as tales of heroic battles or tragic love affairs. As you tour, you’ll hear all about the people who lived there and the events within its walls.

2. Beautiful Architecture

Kasbahs in Morocco are also renowned for their beautiful architecture. 

Many of them were built using the latest techniques of the time, and they often incorporated unique features that made them stand out from other buildings.

As you explore a Kasbah, you’ll be able to admire the intricate details of the architecture and get a sense of how the building would have looked when it was first built.

3. Antiques and Artifacts

Another reason to visit a Kasbah while having a tour in Morocco is to see some fantastic antiques and artifacts. Many Kasbahs in Morocco, such as Taourirt Kasbah, Tamdakht Kasbah, Essaouira Kasbah, and many more, have extensive collections of art, furniture like bookcases with drawers, vanity sets, and other items used by the people who lived there. 

In some Kasbahs, you can even see original paintings and tapestries that date back centuries. Seeing all these artifacts up close is a unique experience you won’t find anywhere else.

You’ll get to see how the wealthy and influential people of history lived and learn about the items that were important to them.

4. Stunning Scenery

Kasbahs are often located in stunning scenic areas. Whether situated on a cliff overlooking the ocean or in the mountains, Kasbahs in Morocco always make for an impressive sight.

As you tour the grounds of a Kasbah, you’ll enjoy the beautiful scenery and maybe even snap some photos to remember your trip.

To get more details about the beauty of Moroccan architecture, don’t miss my previous post about The Most Beautiful Towns in Morocco.

Top 13 Best Kasbahs In Morocco (Explained)

Kasbah Tifoultoute

Kasbahs in Morocco were built as defensive structures against invaders atop a hill or by the waters in the middle ages. Over the years, some Kasbahs have crumbled while some stand majestically over a hilltop, making them a sight for sore eyes.

1. Kasbah Of Ait Ben Haddou

Ait Benhaddou is a historic kasbah (fortified village), a traditional pre-Saharan habitat made of clay in Morocco. It’s situated between Marrakesh and the Sahara in the province of Ouarzazate in the Atlas Mountains. 

It was built in the 11th century, reconstructed in the 17th century, and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 1980s.

How to get to Ait Ben Haddou?

The best way to get to Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah is to fly to Marrakech, then you will find public transport that will take you there, or you can hire a car and go there.

Where is Ait Ben Haddou located?

Ait Ben Haddou kasbah lies in the foothills of the southern High Atlas in the Province of Ouarzazate, 30 km northwest of the town of Ouarzazate.

It is the most famous Kasbah in Ounila valley. It is located on the top of the hill on the left bank of the Ounila River and is surrounded by desert.

The architecture of Ait Ben Haddou

It is one of the best buildings that show the beauty of the architecture of ancient Morocco. It is collective dwellings inside defensive walls, reinforced by angle towers, and pierced by baffle gates. The houses inside the defensive walls are crowded together.

Some are modest, some resemble urban castles with their angle tower, and their upper sections are decorated with motifs in clay brick. The houses were built from clay, mud, and many primitive materials.

2. Kasbah Of Telouet

The Kasbah of Telouet is a fortress, castle, and caravanserai all in one, making it an impressive architecture. From a balcony on the second floor, the watchful eye of Glaoua, the Kasbah was known for Ahwach songs and dances, an Amazigh tradition practiced in the Southeast since ancient times.

History of Kasbah Of Telouet

The powerful El Glaoui family ordered the construction of this kasbah in 1860: it took 300 artisans and workers around 5 years to complete.

The palace is covered in ornate decorations, including stucco, painted cedar, and zellige tiles, with fusions of Andalusian and Berber designs.

The location of the kasbah ensured the family’s continued dominance over the olive, saffron, and salt trades that passed through the region, and the El Glaouis remained wealthy and prominent until Thami El Glaoui, nicknamed the ‘Lord of the Atlas’, joined forces with French colonialists to try and oust Sultan Mohammed V from power permanently.

The Kasbah was abandoned shortly afterward, tainted by its connection with Thami El Glaoui. Today it’s a somewhat degraded version of its former glory: a local cooperative runs the site and charges a modest entry fee to tourists.

The remains of this fortress, which lies on the old caravan route over the Atlas Mountains to Marrakesh, can still be visited today. Although the complex is beginning to show signs of disrepair, there is still much to see, and many of the more ornate decorations remain intact.

How to get to Telouet Kasbah?

The kasbah of Telouet and the village are now accessible by the P1506 road, which, coming from the north, is accessed by a junction near the Tizi n’Tichka, from the RN9 road that connects Marrakech to Ouarzazate.

It’s about a 3-hour drive. If you don’t have your transport, you’ll probably need to find a seat in a grand taxi as buses this far out are pretty scarce.

3. Taourirt Kasbah

Kasbah Taourirt is a historic fortified residence complex or kasbah (tighremt in Tamazight) in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

The History Of Taourirt Kasbah

According to oral traditions, the kasbah was first built in the 17th century by the Imzwarn, a powerful local family. More certainly, however, the kasbah was taken over and expanded by the Glaoui family in the 19th century.

At the height of its importance in the late 19th century, the kasbah controlled an important location at the confluence of several river valleys – including the Draa and the Dadès – which were part of the Saharan trade routes.

One of the Glaoui family members, Thami El Glaoui, was famously the pasha of Marrakesh during the entirety of French colonial rule over Morocco in the 20th century. 

After the end of French colonial rule and Glaoui control over the region, settlers progressively took over the kasbah, and began to decay. A small part of the kasbah was restored in the 1990s with the help of UNESCO and is now open as a historical attraction.

Some unrestored areas of the kasbah are still inhabited by families today. The kasbah has appeared in movies including Gladiator and Prince of Persia.

The Architecture Of Taourirt Kasbah

The structure is made largely of rammed earth and mud-brick and is among its most impressive and best-preserved examples. The bulk of the building has three floors.

It is marked by large square or rectangular towers at its corners, the exteriors decorated with geometric motifs and niches, typical of the architecture in the traditionally Berber-dominated oasis regions of southern Morocco. 

The exterior of the building is also notable for several projecting balconies or overhanging projections or balconies with windows, some of which overlook the entrance courtyard, as well as more open windows on the upper floors, which are guarded with iron bars.

Inside, some rooms have unique decorations and tataoui ceilings made of woven reed. 

4. Amridil Kasbah

When visiting Morocco, there are many wonderful things to see and do. It can be challenging to plan for them all. But if you are spending time in Marrakesh, you should consider taking a day or two to spend some time in southeastern Morocco. 

From the city of Ouarzazate (affectionately known as the “Hollywood of Morocco”) to the town of Erfoud (gateway to the dunes), the entire area is rich with stunning scenery, friendly people, and history dating back to ancient times. One particularly magical stop is the small village of Kasbah Amridil.

It is considered among the most impressive kasbahs of its kind in Morocco and was previously featured on the Moroccan 50 dirhams note.

The History Of Amridil Kasbah

The Kasbah was originally founded in the 17th century. It initially consisted of a fortified village, a ksar, occupying a strategic location along the river and at the entrance to the Skoura palmeraie.

Towards the end of the 19th century M’hamed Ben Brahim Nasiri, a faqih from a local privileged family living in the ksar (descendants of the family associated with the prestigious Zawiya Nasiriyya in Tamegroute, was chosen by Madani El Glaoui (older brother of Thami el Glaoui) to educate his sons in reading the Qur’an. As compensation, El Glaoui commissioned his artisans to build Nasiri, a tighremt (fortified mansion) at the ksar. 

Today the kasbah is the most prominent structure and takes up the long southern part of the complex, while the ruined ksar (the former village) occupies the northern section. The kasbah made an appearance in the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia.

It is still owned and maintained by the Nasiri family to this day. The family continues to live in one part of the kasbah.

In contrast, other parts have been restored to serve as a museum showcasing the traditional architecture of the building and local traditional artifacts, including tools, an olive press, a bread oven, and an old well. 

The Amridil Kasbah Architecture

The building follows some of the typical design elements of oasis architecture in the predominantly Berber regions of southern Morocco: it is made from rammed earth or mudbrick. It has square corner towers with geometric decorations. The original ksar (village) corresponded to the walled enclosure still occupying the northern section of the site, but it is ruined today. 

The Kasbah (or tighremt), a large late 19th-century mansion for the Nasiri family and (historically) their servants, occupies the rest of the site, stretching towards the south along the river. 

Although it has various courtyards and elements, the most imposing structure is the main house, an almost square building with four corner towers (though a fifth tower has since been added on the south side of the structure).

During recent restorations, a garden has been added to the courtyard in the southern section of the kasbah, although this is a design element imported from Marrakesh. 

This main house rises on four levels arranged around a central courtyard or patio, the wust ad-dar (“middle of the house”). The courtyard is covered by a roof on the first two levels, while on the third level, it is open to the air, and the fourth level consists of the upper-floor terrace running around it. 

The entrance of the tighremt is on the first (ground) level and is accessed through an outer courtyard on its east side. A vestibule room inside the entrance gives access to the central courtyard and the stairway leading to the upper floors. The rooms on the first level were used to store food, goods, and animals. 

The second level above this was used for domestic purposes, mainly as kitchens and to store other types of food like oil, fruits, and grain. The third level, centered around the open-air patio, is where the actual living space began. The rooms here are enlivened with ochre, and white paint and some sections are open to the patio through a gallery of arches, allowing more light to penetrate. 

The rooms are more or less interchangeable rather than having predefined functions – they could be furnished and refurnished to suit different needs. The fourth level, the terrace above this, featured a sundial and gave access to the towers.

How to get to Amridil Kasbah?

The distance between Kasbah Amridil and Marrakesh is 150 km. The road distance is 238.6 km. From Ouarzazate, national route N10, keep going until you reach a dry river, the Kasbah is on the other side. You can share a Grand Taxi for 15 DH/set or a Bus traveling to Tinghir for 10 Dh.  

5. Kasbah Tifoultoute

About ten kilometers from Ouarzazate, the village of Tifoultoute attracts visitors to its Kasbah, often used as a backdrop in films.

 In the same style as the Kasbah Taourirt in Ouarzazate, that Tifoultoute is worth a detour for its surroundings. The landscape, formed by the Ouarzazate river valley, entrances tourists who take the time to stop and admire it from above the terraces.

The History Of Tifoultoute Kasbah

Built-in the 17th century and extended by the Glaoui clan in the 18th, this commanding hilltop kasbah has now been converted into a privately-owned restaurant (open to diners till midnight), with tables scattered throughout the building.

Though only the smaller 18th-century extension is open to visitors (the rest left to return to the sands slowly), several magnificently tiled rooms inside make it worth the trip.

Tifoultoute Kasbah Architecture

The main entrance is opposite the film museum. There are many local guides there to explain the architecture of this Kasbah.

The stairs and the passageways are narrow. Some of them are old, and some have been tastefully restored.

How to get to Tifoultoute Kasbah?

To get to Tifoulfoute Kasbah from Ouarzazate, go in the direction of Marrakech for six kilometers before turning towards the village of Zagora. Visitors will reach the Kasbah after two kilometers.

6. Udayas Kasbah

The Oudaya Kasbah is a haven of tranquillity, with its flower-filled little streets, Andalusian garden, and Moorish café. Referred to also as Kasbah of the Udayas, the Oudaya Kasbah is one of the unique sites in Morocco and is the first milestone of the city of Rabat. 

It’s located at the mouth of the Bou Regreg River, opposite the city of Salé, in Rabat, Morocco. UNESCO recognized the significance of the Oudaya Kasbah and added it to the World Heritage Tentative List in 2006. 

The History Of Oudaias Kasbah

The Kasbah has been home to many Andalusian immigrants, Arab tribes, and some of the most powerful sultans of Morocco. The most dramatic entry to the Oudaya Kasbah is through the enormous Almohad gate called Bab Oudaia.

Built in 1195, its location, facing the city’s heart and just outside the original palace, made it more ceremonial than defensive. The gateway is built of dressed stones and is decorated with a series of carved arches, making it one of the jewels of Almohad art.

The main street, Rue Jamaa, runs straight through the kasbah to the Plateforme du Sémaphore. In the Kasbah’s main square, a warehouse built in the late 18th century now accommodates a cooperative where you can watch girls at work weaving carpets.

The Kasbah contains Rabat’s oldest mosque, known as the Old Mosque; its minaret, adorned with small decorative arcades, is most probably the work of one of the first Alaouite sovereigns.

From the ocean side of the old semaphore-station platform at the end of the main street, you can enjoy superb panoramic views over Salé and the Bouregreg Estuary.

The returnees from Andalusia played an important role in influencing the trait of the Kasbah; it can be seen in the architecture and the garden that mimics those in Andalusia. 

Today, the Kasbah remains a popular free tourist attraction within Rabat, offering scenic views of the waterfront of Rabat, the Bou Regreg river, neighboring Salé, and the Atlantic Ocean.

It is mostly occupied as a residential neighborhood, known for its distinct blue and white walls. An unoccupied site adjacent to the Kasbah is used as one of the concert venues for the annual Mawazine music festival in Rabat.

7. Bab Ourika Kasbah

Bab Ourika is another kasbah that I recommend visiting, Besides being famous in Morocco. The Kasbah is located in a great place that combines different natural landscapes that you will definitely enjoy.

The History Of Ourika Kasbah

The Kasbah Bab Ourika resides in a stunning landscape in the Atlas Mountains, only 35 minutes from Marrakech’s international airport.

Perched on its hilltop, at the apex of the Ourika Valley, views sweep down to the river, green fields and groves of olives, oranges, and lemons, and up to the dazzling snowy mountain peaks. 

The Kasbah is one of the eco-friendliest buildings in Morocco. Constructed principally from Pise (rammed earth), the traditional Berber building easily with the rock and earth around it.

How to get to Ourika Kasbah?

The Ourika Kasbah lies at the entrance of Ourika valley at the top of a hill in the Atlas Mountains. Only 35 minutes from Marrakech’s airport.

8. Toubkal Kasbah

Located at the base of Jebel Toubkal, with breathtaking 360-degree views of the peaks and valleys, this small hotel is the perfect base for exploring the Atlas Mountains and getting to grips with Berber culture.

Decoration throughout is simple and built entirely on traditional lines, with plaster walls and wooden ceilings. There are various room types, all of which are cozy, unfussy, and perfectly suited to high-altitude accommodation.

The History Of Toubkal Kasbah

The Kasbah du Toubkal was founded in 1995 by Mike and Chris McHugo, British brothers who have been mountain hikers and Atlas adventurers since the 1970s.

They bought it as a ruin and, in partnership with Omar Ait Barmed, a local mountain guide who first led Mike through the Imlil Valley in 1978, restored it to its original magnificence.

The ruin, once the home of a feudal ruler, was rebuilt using local skills and techniques, and these days, it must be one of the most photographed kasbahs in Morocco. 

Toubkal Kasbah Architecture

It features a traditional hammam (steam bath), which is the perfect way to unwind after exploring the mountains before retiring to the roof terrace for a delicious tajine or a quiet mint tea.

At the same time, you bask in the inspiring scenery. As well as guided walks into the mountains, you can visit nearby villages and hamlets, home to many staff.

The kasbah has no alcohol license, but they have no problem with you bringing your alcohol onto

How to get to Toubkal Kasbah?

The old kasbah of Toubkal is only 1 hour and 30 minutes drive from Marrakech and the International Menara Airport.

9. Tamnougalt Kasbah

Tamnougalt is a kasbah and date palm oasis in the Atlas Mountains located in the Draa River valley in Morocco, some 75 kilometers south of Ouarzazate. The village is close to Agdz and has a famous kasbah. The Jbel Kissane rises to the north dominating the landscape. 

It is the former capital of the Mezguita region and the residence of former caïds. Its name means ‘meeting point’ in Tachelhit. Each year, in the first week of October, the Moussem Ellama is held, a cultural and religious festival for all villages in the neighborhood.

The History Of Tamnougalt Kasbah

It was built in the 16th century. It was the Administrative and Residential Kasbah of the Mezguita tribe. It has fascinating architecture, a mixture of Moorish, Berber, and Roman architecture, and it has been painted with natural pigments.

How to get to Tamnougalt Kasbah?

Tamnougalt kasbah is located in the Atlas Mountains in the Draa River valley, 95 kilometers south of Ouarzazate.

10. Essaouira Kasbah

As a traveler who has added Essaouira city to his bucket list, I recommend you not to miss strolling in the old medina of Essaouira, there are a lot of things to see and hidden spots to take photos in.

The History Of Essaouira Kasbah

The scale was built in 1765 by the French architect Theodore Cornut, who built it in the same style as a fortification designed in France by his teacher Vauban. It was built for defense against attacks from the sea.

It has a charming view of the ocean and many tourists visit it to relax and know the country’s history. Many places will capture you once you see them and will make you wonder how people of that age could build such a well-constructed fort.

How to get to Essaouira Kasbah?

Travelers from Marrakech to the coastal town of Essaouira have several transport options for the 118-mile (191 km) journey, ranging from 2-4 hours in duration. There are no trains or planes to Essaouira, so your options are a private driver, shared shuttle, or rental car. 

11. Kasbah Museum

When you visit cities as vibrant as Tangier, where life takes place in the streets, and there are interesting sights around every corner, you might not think about visiting museums or art galleries. What’s more, on your trip to Tangier, you should make an exception and visit the Kasbah Museum.

The Kasbah Museum in Tangier, Morocco, is the main mosque of the historic royal citadel (kasbah) in Tangier’s old city (medina). It dates to the late 17th century.

Visiting the museum will allow you to cross the threshold of a building with a white, crenelated façade, seemingly lacking in elegance, to discover its two courtyards with fountains and an Andalusian garden, which is slightly more hidden away.

In addition, the building, which was expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, has ornate ceilings and beautiful carved wooden domes.

The History Of Kasbah Museum

Previously known as ‘Dar al Makhzen’ or Sultan’s Palace, this museum takes an important portion of Tangier’s Kasbah. The building was the residence of Portuguese governor Domus Praefecti between 1471 and 1661.

It became an important castle called the ‘Upper Castle’ and was used by English governors between 1662 and 1684 until the Caïd Ben Abdellah El Hamani evicted them.

The Architecture Of Museum Kasbah

The museum houses a collection of artistic, ethnographic, and archaeological objects, many of which originate from north Morocco.

The visit begins with an area called “from first hunters to first farmers,” where a rich collection of Prehistoric items is exhibited (Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, and Epipalaeolithic periods).

The next room is dedicated to the romanization period of the region, a beautiful collection of archaeological objects from Roman sites in Morocco, such as Lixus and Volubilis.

This museum presents an exhibition of artifacts relating to the Islamic history of Morocco, such as an impressive dome decorated with sculpted and painted cedar and plaster or a unique Qur’an of the eighteenth century, gilded and richly illuminated is exposed.

How to get to the kasbah museum?

The Kasbah Museum is next to Kasbah Square, in the quarter that bears the same name. This ancient citadel occupies the highest part of Tangier’s medina. To get there, you’ll have to climb up steep alleyways that will take you to the highest part of the historic center.

12. Tamdakht Kasbah

If you already considering Ait Ben Haddou kasbah then Tamdakht is another interesting old kasbah that you can explore. It’s located only 5 kilometers from the Ait Ben Haddou ksar.

The History Tamdakht Kasbah

The Tamdakht kasbah is located 5 kilometers from the Ait Ben Haddou ksar, downstream from the Ounila valley, in a beautiful natural setting.

The Kasbah, which has a rectangular design surrounding a courtyard and is distinguished by its eight towers, is supposed to have been built before the arrival of the Glaouis to the village of Tamdakht.

Although practically all of the kasbah is in ruins, the site remains imposing and gives testament to a magnificent past steeped in the region’s history.

How to get to Tamdakht kasbah?

The Best way to get to Tamdakht old kasbah is to board a taxi which takes 3 hours and costs $40 – $55.

13. Tamadot Kasbah

Located at the foothills of the Atlas Mountains, approximately one hour’s drive from the center of Marrakech, Morocco, Kasbah Tamadot sits at an elevation of 1,320m above sea level.

It overlooks a valley whose river ebbs and flows with the seasons.

The History Of Tamadot kasbah

Situated in the spectacular Atlas Mountains in Morocco, the award-winning Kasbah Tamadot was bought by Sir Richard Branson during one of his famous ballooning expeditions.

Sir Richard Branson discovered Kasbah Tamadot when he visited Morocco to circumnavigate the globe in a hot air balloon.

His parents, Ted and Eve Branson found the beautiful Kasbah and dreamed of turning it into a wonderful Moroccan retreat.

Richard didn’t quite manage to complete his hot air balloon mission, but he did purchase that magnificent Kasbah, and his parents’ dream became a reality when Kasbah Tamadot opened its doors to its first hotel guests in 2005.

The Architecture Of Tamadot kasbah

Sir Richard Branson’s Moroccan retreat, Kasbah Tamadot, is a magical walled fortress and divine hideaway situated at the foot of the spectacular Atlas Mountains, with enchanting courtyards, landscaped gardens, and breathtaking views.

Kasbah Tamadot features 27 bedrooms and suites, including nine luxury Berber Tents, some of which have private plunge pools.

Each room has been individually decorated to reflect the beautiful architecture of the building and beautifully infuse the traditional charm of Moroccan design with contemporary elements and antiques from the vast collection of Luciano Tempo, Kasbah Tamadot‘s former owner.

To top it all off, Kasbah Tamadot features a master suite, a miniature version of the Kasbah. This outstanding suite offers forever views and has three special rooms, usually booked together.

It also has a large terrace and a private pool. The building itself is rich in architectural detail and affords complete privacy.

How to get to Tamadot kasbah?

The Kasbah Tamadot is a 45-minute bus/car ride from Marrakech (a quarter of an hour by helicopter).

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The Bottom Line

All in all, if you are one of those who travel to experience and see unique and beautiful landscapes. Then you should definitely consider adding Morocco’s kasbahs to your bucket list especially if the ones that are near the cities are already in your tour itinerary.

If I had to add one kasbah to visit during my travel to Morocco then it would be Ait Ben Haddou since it’s the most well-known because of the various Hollywood films that were shot there.

That’s it for today’s post. I hope you enjoyed reading this. If Yes, don’t forget to spread out by sharing this article on your social media accounts.

Thank you (:



Is there a Kasbah in Morocco?

Yes. As Morocco was tribal, every tribe had to build its own Kasbah, and most were owned and built by the Glaoua. In addition, many tribes in Morocco built Kasbahs to protect their leaders of important occupants.

How many Kasbahs are there in Morocco?

There are around 20 famous kasbahs in Morocco. Some of them are added to the Unesco world heritage sites list and some of them are still

What are Kasbahs made of?

Kasbahs or Qasbas (from the Arabic qa’aba, which means citadel, fortress) are typically urban structures, similar to ksars, common in south Morocco. Both are made from earth and characterized by crenelated towers and walls.

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